O Toronto, Ontario
Toronto is the most populous city in Canada, and the capital of the province of Ontario. In 2011, Toronto had a population of 2,615,060, making it the fourth most populous city in North America, after Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles. The Greater Toronto Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada with 5,583,064 people living in the census metropolitan area as of 2011. Classified as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Toronto is a leading international centre of business, finance, arts, and culture.The area now called Toronto has been inhabited for thousands of years by various Aboriginal peoples. The urban history of the city dates back to 1787, when British officials negotiated the Toronto Purchase with the Mississaugas of the New Credit. They established the Town of York, and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, York was ransacked and heavily damaged by U.S. troops in the Battle of York. The town was renamed and incorporated as the City of Toronto in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867. Toronto has occasionally expanded through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities throughout its history, the results of which can be seen in the 140 independently unique and clearly defined official neighbourhoods that make up the city.